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dc.contributor.author White-Wolff, Judy en
dc.date.accessioned 2012-02-27T17:36:37Z en
dc.date.available 2012-02-27T17:36:37Z en
dc.date.issued 1991 en
dc.identifier.citation White-Wolff, Judy. 1991. Art Therapy and Sandplay Therapy with Twins : a Search for Identity. Department of Psychology, Sonoma State University. en
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10211.1/1382 en
dc.description.abstract Purpose of Study: The purpose of this study is to use art therapy and sandplay therapy to determine the developmental challenges that are unique or particularly difficult for children who are twins. In my previous work with a set of twins, I became increasingly aware of issues around self-identity that were appearing in the art work. I believed that other twins might share these issues. As part of this study, I have also explored the value of the art modalities to facilitate the development of a sense of identity through self-esteem enhancement and self expression. Procedure: I selected four sets of twins for this study. They were all latency age (7-11 years old), same-sex twins who were identical in appearance. They included two sets of girls, seven and nine years old, and two sets of boys, eight and ten years old. Prior to the art sessions, I interviewed each set with a parent present using a questionnaire designed to gather basic information. A follow-up session was held with each parent at the completion of the project. I met with the children for a total of six sessions each. In the first session I met with each set of twins for one and a half hours. The following four sessions were individual sessions of one hour each. For the last session, the children were asked their preference for a joint or individual session. Three sets finished with individual sessions, while one set chose to meet jointly. Sessions were held in my studio in which there is a sandtray and an assortment of art materials appropriate for children's use. One or more directives was given in each session, with a portion of time allotted for free choice. The same directives, in most cases, were given to each child. To minimize comparisons between each pair before both had completed the directives, each set of twins was scheduled back to back. The art processes given as directives were chosen with a focus on providing information about the children's sense of self-identity, self-esteem, and sense of themselves within the family unit and within the twin relationship. The sessions were conducted in a therapeutic manner to enhance the value of the art processes for the children. Findings: The artwork of these eight children supports the hypothesis that, for children who are twins, establishing a secure sense of self-identity presents a difficult challenge. Indications of insecurity, inadequacy, poor body image, competition with the twin and dependency were present in the art and sandtrays. Within each of the four sets of twins there was a pattern suggesting that the birth order of the twins played a significant role in each child's individuation process. Also evident in the work of these children was the value of the art and sandplay in assisting in the developmental task of separation and individuation, which for twins involves the twin relationship as well as the mother/parent-child relationship. Conclusion: Art process and sandplay can serve as a barometer of a child's sense of self. Through these modalities we have access to each child's inner image of self, which gives us clues regarding progress with developmental tasks such as separation and individuation. The use of expressive modalities such as art process and sandplay can facilitate the development of a clear sense of an individual, unique identity. Therefore, these modalities can serve as valuable tools in furthering an understanding of the twin situation, as well as in facilitating the completion of developmental tasks. en
dc.language.iso en_US en
dc.publisher Department of Psychology, Sonoma State University en
dc.subject twins -- psychology en
dc.subject children -- identity en
dc.subject sandplay -- therapeutic use en
dc.subject art therapy for children en
dc.title Art Therapy and Sandplay Therapy with Twins : a Search for Identity en
dc.type Thesis en
dc.contributor.sonomaauthor White-Wolff, Judy en
dc.advisor Lovell, Suzanne, Ph.D., A.T.R. en
dc.advisor Van Nuys, David, Ph.D. en
dc.advisor Baker, Judy, M.A., M.F.C.C., A.T.R. en
dc.advisor Menrath, Nina, M.A. en

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